Understanding the Persistence of the Property & Casualty Hard Market

Apr 18, 2024

The Property and Casualty (P&C) insurance market has experienced an unprecedented hard market for six years, a significant departure from the typical three- to four-year cycles seen since the 1980s. ALIRT Insurance Research highlights that the first quarter of 2024 marks the 25th consecutive quarter of firming pricing in the U.S. commercial lines market. Unlike previous hard markets, which featured sharp price increases followed by rapid declines, the current scenario shows a more gradual yet prolonged elevation in rates.

Commercial lines price increases have recently stabilized at mid- to high-5% levels, suggesting a disciplined pricing environment. Meanwhile, the personal lines sector, typically less volatile, has been under pressure, with some insurers implementing double-digit rate hikes or withdrawing from challenging markets altogether.

This atypical hard market is driven by a ‘quadruple threat’ that features persistent economic and social inflation causing unexpectedly high losses, increased weather-related claims, scarce and costly reinsurance, and low interest rates over the past many years affecting investment income, which is crucial for P&C profitability.

The ongoing challenge for insurers is balancing rate adjustments approved by regulators with the need to maintain profitability. High-loss lines of business, particularly personal auto and homeowners, have seen significant underwriting losses, necessitating rate increases and stricter terms. On the other hand, coverages like inland marine and workers’ compensation have shown consistent underwriting gains.

Looking ahead, the industry is cautiously optimistic. Economic inflation is easing, and an improved interest rate environment should bolster investment returns. This should alleviate some underwriting pressure. Additionally, the influx of reinsurance capacity as of January 2024 suggests that high reinsurance rates may have peaked, which is promising for overall financial health.

However, the environmental insurance market is facing its own set of challenges and opportunities. Emerging risks such as ethylene oxide and PFAS are becoming significant concerns for carriers. These reflect the dynamic nature of environmental regulations and the evolving realities of climate-related risks. Despite the broader market’s improving conditions, this sector must remain adaptable to navigate these complex challenges effectively.

As we move through 2024 and into 2025, rates are expected to firm, albeit at a slower rate. The ultimate question remains whether rates will soften significantly post-2025 or if higher rates will become the new norm for the industry. Regardless, the current cycle is already one for the history books, demonstrating the sector’s resilience and adaptability in the face of prolonged market challenges. For more detailed insights, read the original article here. 

At Jencap, our experts are ready to ensure you get the coverage your clients need no matter what the market challenges are or how hard the risks are to place. Contact Jencap today to get a quote.

The Jencap Casualty Insurance Team

The Jencap Casualty Insurance Team

Jencap’s casualty experts have custom solutions no matter how complex, or straightforward, your risk. Our dedicated team has niche expertise in construction, product recall, habitational, umbrella and excess, and more! With our streamlined process, you'll direct your energy where it's needed most and leave the rest to us.
Insurance Economic Impact | Insurance Rate Trends | P&C Hard Market | Property Casualty Market



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The property market has been plagued in recent years with ever-shrinking capacity and rising premiums. Now, more than ever, it’s vital to partner with a strong, national wholesaler who puts its size and reputation to work for you and your clients. By working with Jencap, you’re able to leverage the collective experience and industry expertise of an entire team. We’ll arm you with unparalleled market access, as well as the industry insights needed to navigate this challenging environment. No matter the risk, your clients can trust that with Jencap, they’ll be in the strongest position possible at the negotiating table.

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